ابحاث ومشاريع التخرج بكالوريس

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    Modifying the filtration properties of water-based Drilling fluids using extracted virgin olive cellule
    (جامعة سبها, 2024) محمد مختار يوسف; علي عبدالرحمن محمد; مفتاح عمر مفتاح
    This study explores the potential of cellulose extracted from olive kernels (OKC) and olive pomace (OPC) as a modifier for drilling fluid properties. The cellulose, when integrated into real drilling fluid, exhibited minimal impact on pH levels and density across various concentrations. Plastic viscosity peaked at 0.1% and 0.25%, indicating potential overload points. Yield strength fluctuations correlated with changes in viscosity, impacting system performance. Increasing cellulose concentration in bentonite resulted in elevated salinity level , thus the optimal filtration efficiency was achieved at 0.025% cellulose concentration from Olive kernels Overall, cellulose from olive in both samples ( kernels & pomace ) showcased promising potential in enhancing drilling fluid performance, controlling circulation loss, and modifying the mud filtration cake, thus serving as a viable alternative to CMC.
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    Enhancing Oil Recovery in Sandstone Core Samples Using Zeolite, Sodium & Potassium Hydroxide, Slica, AL, Addition to Formation Water
    (جامعة سبها, 2023) حمد أبوبكر محمد; طاهر محمد إبراهيم
    This research project explores the effectiveness of adding zeolites to formation water for enhancing oil recovery. The demand for fossil fuels, particularly oil, remains significant for meeting global energy needs. However, primary oil production methods fall short in extracting most of the original oil-in-place (OOIP). Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods are employed to address this challenge. Among these methods, water flooding plays a vital role in increasing oil production by maintaining reservoir pressure and displacing oil from pore spaces, leading to improved ultimate oil recovery. To enhance the efficiency of water flooding, various chemicals have been tested and proven effective when added to the injected water. These include smart water injection, carbonated water injection, surfactant solutions, polymers, alkalis, mutual solvents, and foam injection. Zeolites, known for their porous structure and ion-exchange properties, have gained prominence in numerous industrial applications, including EOR. This research investigates the impact of adding zeolites to formation water on oil recovery. The research issue arises from the recognition that formation water alone may not efficiently recover oil due to oil properties and rock characteristics. The aim of this study is to determine whether the inclusion of zeolites in formation water can enhance oil recovery. Experiments are conducted on sandstone core samples obtained from a Libyan field in the Murzuq basin, using oil with a density of g/cc. The findings of this research hold significance for fields subjected to water injection in Libya, as successful implementation of zeolites could substantially increase the country's daily oil production rate. The experimental results demonstrate that the addition of zeolite, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, silica, and aluminum significantly improves oil recovery at higher temperatures for sandstone core samples. Furthermore, the inclusion of sodium hydroxide yields superior oil recovery compared to potassium hydroxide. Using 15% of sodium and potassium hydroxides yields better results than other percentages, although the underlying cause is not explored in this study. Additionally, the combination of zeolite, sodium and potassium hydroxides, silica, and aluminum enhances oil recovery, warranting further investigation into the underlying mechanisms
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    Phase behaviours study using different types of surfactant
    (جامعة سبها, 2024) بوزيد يوسف إبراهيم; علي فرج عبدالله
    In this research, three types of surfactants were used: the first type is Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate SDS, the second type is commercial soap, and the third type is laboratory-prepared soap. Three soaps with different proportions were placed in a test tube containing an equal proportion of oil and water The samples were divided into two phases, one containing the original water salinity and the other containing the water salinity diluted to half. By exposing the samples to a different temperature, a layer of microemulsion was formed in both the soap that was prepared in the laboratory and the commercial soap. It was found that the first type of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate SDS sulfactan mixed oil with water, and the microemulsion layer did not form.
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    Experimental study of a solar water heater for effect of solar radiation and mass Flow Rates
    (جامعة سبها, 2024) علي عبدالسلام الزين; انشراح أحمد بشير
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    Preparation of activated carbon from phragmites australis for water purification
    (جامعة سبها, 2024) علي عمرأحمد; أحمد الهادي; تهاني محمد صالح
    Activated carbon is not a product of the times, but it's great importance to humans and the environment, it has been known for thousands of years, and due to its great ability to capture toxins and harmful gases, because its phenomenon adsorption ability, the uses of activated carbon are very wide and it's included in many industries such as water purification, minerals extraction, and in medicines industries and many more. Our research includes the preparing of activated carbon by using Phragmites Australia which was calcinated under a specific temperature for 2hr, and it was activated successfully by hydroxide sodium and it was used to remove the Methylene blue dye from water successfully, the results showed that, the absorption bands at 3317 and 3439 cm-1 cans be related to the O-H group which is assigned for stretching vibration mode of hydroxyl functional groups. The band at 1601.56 cm-1 shows the formation of carbonyl-containing groups. The weak bands at 1466.99 cm to 1000 cm-1 are related to the C-H group present in alkali groups. The bands from 700 to 400 cm-1 are corresponded to the out-of-plane bending vibrations of C-H group in the aromatic rings. However, weak peak appeared slightly above 3000 cm-1 in activated carbon demonstrates unsaturation indicating alkenyl C= C stretch.
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    Performance study of a Multi-Effect Desalination plant combined with a Parabolic Trough Collector, operating under the climatic conditions of the Sebha region
    (جامعة سبها, 2023) Ghazala Ali Al Sadiq
    Water scarcity is a problem in a number of countries, especially in semiarid regions. One of the most promising applications of solar energy is water desalination, especially in regions where fresh water is scarce and solar radiation is abundant. Desalination is an increasing and necessary source of fresh water, but it is energy intensive. Conventional water desalination is currently supported by fossil fuels, and it is critical to explore renewable options to reduce pollution. The most important of these options is solar energy. In the Middle East and North Africa ,seawater desalination has been among the main sources of drinking water. The study was applied to MATLAB program, in the city of Sebha to simulate the coupling of thermal water desalination plants and concentrating solar collectors to produce drinking water and be economically feasible as well, the study begins by using the analytical hierarchy process to select adequate desalination technologies for the city of Sabha and by considering the results obtained through our research and study in this field .
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    Chemical Synthesis of Aluminum oxide Nanoparticles, Determination of Antimicrobial Activity
    (جامعة سبها, 2023) Almahdi Ali Almahdi; Abdelsalam Mesbah Masoud
    In this study,Aluminum oxide nanoparticles were prepared by sol gel method , aluminum oxide nanoparticles were evaluated using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) , Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), This study also determines the antibacterial and fungus activity of Al2O3 nanoparticles against pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia Coli and Trichophyton rubrum, The average crystallite size of Al2O3 nanoparticles was determined to be 30 nm in XRD, Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia Coli and Trichophyton rubrum displayed a peak zone of inhibition (15 , 13 mm) and (70%) in the antimicrobial experiment at a dose of 100 mg/ml of Al2O3 nanoparticles, aluminium oxide is a powerful antibacterial and fungus agent that may be used to treat a wide range of human illnesses.
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    Design of Parabolic Trough Collector Power Plant using (SAM) Software, in Sabha region
    (جامعة سبها, 2023) Ayman Abdul Karim Muhammad
    Concentrated solar power (CSP) is a leading renewable energy technology, and the parabolic trough (PT) is one of the most used configurations of CSP. In the present study, the performance improvement and energy cost reduction of a 50 MWe PT plant for Sabha, Libya is presented. The simulations were carried out using the System Advisor Model software. The analyses of a PT plant with different technologies/parameters are undertaken in the first instance for six cases. These cases include solar multiple, solar collectors, receivers, heat transfer fluid, cooling system (evaporative and air-cooled), thermal energy storage system (4–12 h), Based on these analysis, the seventh case, which is found to be the bestcase scenario in this study, was considered by taking into account the best of preceding case results and was determined to be the most suitable both in terms of performance and cost reduction. It is, therefore, concluded from this study that the utilization of CSP plants with a proper selection of technology could help reduce energy costs and environmental pollution, enhance system performance, and meet energy demands effectively
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    Enhancing Oil Recovery in Sandstone Core Samples Using Zeolite, Sodium & Potassium Hydroxide, Slica, AL, Addition to Formation Water
    (جامعة سبها, 2023-03) Taher Mohamed Ebrahem; Hamad Abobaker Mohamed
    This research project explores the effectiveness of adding zeolites to formation water for enhancing oil recovery. The demand for fossil fuels, particularly oil, remains significant for meeting global energy needs. However, primary oil production methods fall short in extracting most of the original oil-in-place (OOIP). Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods are employed to address this challenge. Among these methods, water flooding plays a vital role in increasing oil production by maintaining reservoir pressure and displacing oil from pore spaces, leading to improved ultimate oil recovery. To enhance the efficiency of water flooding, various chemicals have been tested and proven effective when added to the injected water. These include smart water injection, carbonated water injection, surfactant solutions, polymers, alkalis, mutual solvents, and foam injection. Zeolites, known for their porous structure and ion-exchange properties, have gained prominence in numerous industrial applications, including EOR. This research investigates the impact of adding zeolites to formation water on oil recovery. The research issue arises from the recognition that formation water alone may not efficiently recover oil due to oil properties and rock characteristics. The aim of this study is to determine whether the inclusion of zeolites in formation water can enhance oil recovery. Experiments are conducted on sandstone core samples obtained from a Libyan field in the Murzuq basin, using oil with a density of g/cc. The findings of this research hold significance for fields subjected to water injection in Libya, as successful implementation of zeolites could substantially increase the country's daily oil production rate. The experimental results demonstrate that the addition of zeolite, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, silica, and aluminum significantly improves oil recovery at higher temperatures for sandstone core samples. Furthermore, the inclusion of sodium hydroxide yields superior oil recovery compared to potassium hydroxide. Using 15% of sodium and potassium hydroxides yields better results than other percentages, although the underlying cause is not explored in this study. Additionally, the combination of zeolite, sodium and potassium hydroxides, silica, and aluminum enhances oil recovery, warranting further investigation into the underlying mechanisms.
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    Enhancing Oil Recovery in Sandstone Core Samples Using Zeolite, Sodium & Potassium Hydroxide, Slica, AL, Addition to Formation Water
    (جامعة سبها, 2023-03) Taher Mohamed Ebrahem; Hamad Abobaker Mohamed
    This research project explores the effectiveness of adding zeolites to formation water for enhancing oil recovery. The demand for fossil fuels, particularly oil, remains significant for meeting global energy needs. However, primary oil production methods fall short in extracting most of the original oil-in-place (OOIP). Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods are employed to address this challenge. Among these methods, water flooding plays a vital role in increasing oil production by maintaining reservoir pressure and displacing oil from pore spaces, leading to improved ultimate oil recovery. To enhance the efficiency of water flooding, various chemicals have been tested and proven effective when added to the injected water. These include smart water injection, carbonated water injection, surfactant solutions, polymers, alkalis, mutual solvents, and foam injection. Zeolites, known for their porous structure and ion-exchange properties, have gained prominence in numerous industrial applications, including EOR. This research investigates the impact of adding zeolites to formation water on oil recovery. The research issue arises from the recognition that formation water alone may not efficiently recover oil due to oil properties and rock characteristics. The aim of this study is to determine whether the inclusion of zeolites in formation water can enhance oil recovery. Experiments are conducted on sandstone core samples obtained from a Libyan field in the Murzuq basin, using oil with a density of g/cc. The findings of this research hold significance for fields subjected to water injection in Libya, as successful implementation of zeolites could substantially increase the country's daily oil production rate. The experimental results demonstrate that the addition of zeolite, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, silica, and aluminum significantly improves oil recovery at higher temperatures for sandstone core samples. Furthermore, the inclusion of sodium hydroxide yields superior oil recovery compared to potassium hydroxide. Using 15% of sodium and potassium hydroxides yields better results than other percentages, although the underlying cause is not explored in this study. Additionally, the combination of zeolite, sodium and potassium hydroxides, silica, and aluminum enhances oil recovery, warranting further investigation into the underlying mechanisms.
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    EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS FARRUD RESERVOIR IN GHANI-FIELD BY USING PETROLEUM EXPERTS SOFTWARE (MBAL)
    (جامعة سبها, 2022) علي, يوسف; مالك, عبدالله; الأمين, محمد
    This project report covers the analysis of reservoir performance both historical and predicted under the given factors and variables that affect production from reservoir data that has obtained, The data collected from "Farrud" reservoir, the simulated data are calculated depending on sum of RRR29, RRR31 and RRR32 wells, and analyzed by using MBAL software. This software is applies material balance equation and other reservoir properties in the order to achieve the accurate OOIP based on the old OOIP and correct the data to estimate future performance of reservoir. In this study, different scenarios have been handled to match the old data that collected from the field. The best model can fit with data was (Schilthuis Steady State Model) water influx and correct the diffusivity depending on reservoir pressure, the old OOIP was 814 MMSTB and the corrected value of OOIP is 830 MMSTB. So, the results were close to the productivity that inputted in the production history and doesn’t reached bubble point pressure which was 1900 psia and the reservoir pressure has been maintained to keep above the bubble point pressure. Thus, long shut in period in simulated data let the pressure to increase around 150 Psia from the original value. Two scenarios has been conducted to predict the future performance in this field, first scenario is if the reservoir started producing 500 bbl/day of oil and 221 Mscf/stb of gas for each well without any injection, and the second scenario under the injection effect with injection rate 3000 bbl/day with 200000 ppm salinity and the productivity is 6000bbl/day for oil and 2652 Mscf/stb, both scenarios showed great results and didn’t reached bubble point pressure until 2040, the pressure was 2106 Psia for first scenario and 2073 Psia for second scenario, the two scenarios could be recommended to the Al-ghani-field in the order to Improve the productivity.
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    The inhabitation performance of tamarix material upon mild steel substrate in acid medium
    (جامعة سبها, 2022) شها, ورده
    Under the aggressive environment the metallic materials can be depredated as a corrosion process. One way to protect the metal surface against corrosion is applied the organic inhibitor material. The inhibitor is chemically adsorbed the surface of the metal forming a protective thin film. The current work is investigated the influences of tarmarix plant as an organic material source for inhibiting carbon steel in corrosion media. The obtained results show that the changes in weight loss in samples immersed in corrosion media contain 10% and 20% of Tarmaix material were less that without the inhibitor material. This may attributed to the Tarmaix material play a role in reducing the attaché of chlorine ions onto the substrate surface. Also, corrosion rate decreased with exposure time for all inhabitation specimens. One reason for this phenomenon may be attributed to the slower corrosion reactions emanating from test environment due to contamination by the corroding test metal in solution. In addition, the results revealed that after 5 hrs and 50 %, the inhibitor material showed a higher inhibition efficiency which was slightly above 90%. And, the plots of C\ɵ versus C gives straight lines with the linear correlation coefficient ( R2 ) values close to unity, which follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The slope ranges of these line are 1.391- 1.623 within the used immersion times. Therefore, it can be suggested that the absorbed molecules form monolayer on mild steel surface. The strong appearing of functional groups such as C-OH (figure 4.6 b) inside the structure of polyphenolics in the plant leaf extract of tarmaix could be probably responsible for the reduction of metal ions and formation a protective layer improved the corrosion process within the inhabitation samples.
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    Treatment Produced Water Using Microalgae
    (جامعة سبها, 2023) محمد, هشام
    produced water is consider as one of the main attraction topics in the oil fields, which the formation water comes to the surface with the crude oil and it is separated to avoid many problems that may occur during the transportations. However, the produced water sometimes inject it into artificial lake inside the fields. the water of those lake is caused a pollution for the sands, animals, plants and formation water as well. Therefore, the proper treatment of produced water is very important because it contains minerals and inorganic salts. This study focused on the treatment of produced water using organic materials, which are freshwater algae, and its effects on reducing the salts present in the formation water. In this study, three types of freshwater algae have been used, namely:  Oedogonium alga  Zygnema alga  dead algae The effect of each Ph, Electrical Conductivity (E.C), total dissolved solids TDS, and salinity performed before and after the treating at different times; the first day, the fourth day, and the seventh day. The best result wat at the first day, with regard to oedogonium, where the TDS decreased from 5364 mg / l to 1381 mg / l , pH changed from 7.13 to 8.7, E.c decreased from 10.95 ms/cm to 2.818 ms/cm, and salinity decreased from 6.2 ppt to 1.6 ppt, as well as heavy salts decreased significantly in several elements, and the treated produced water was used for irrigation of plants and animals, and it did not result in any effects.
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    ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY BY USING ALUMINUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES SUPPORTED BY ARABIC GUM
    (جامعة سبها, 2022) محمد, سليمان; احميد, نوف
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    Theoretical study of solar tower
    (جامعة سبها, 2022) بركان, المنذر; عطية, محمد
    In this project some solar power plants are descried. The project mentioned about the importance of solar applications in the power production. The second chapter describe the concentrating solar power plants started by the parabolic trough CSP technology where its structure was clearified. Linear Fresnel CSP technology is explained by means of its construction and working theory .Also the parabolic dish CSP technology described as one of the solar power plant application .in Chapter Three the solar tower power plant is deepley explained that includes the solar field which consists of the heliostats and the tower body and the receiver at the top of the tower also the working fluid (heat transfer fluid) is discussed the important component of solar power plant is the energy storage medium is described. The hall tower solar power plant schem is shown to give an idea about how the complete tower solar plant seems to be. In chapter four the analysis of solar tower system analysied where first step is to determine the solar radiation in region of sebha at 17 Jan, 15April ,17 July, and 15 October. where this region is selected to be a location of the plant sample. the control equation of solar radiation is listed. the equations control of the solar tower field is listed including the design characteristics. In chapter five the control equations are used in MAT LAB program to calculate the design parameters for the plant. The program is limited in a three heliostat for a three contour as an example for the complete plant. The result of the analysis are presented in a figures to show the factor that effect on the solar tower performance.
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    the Effect of Iron oxide Particle Size on the Compressive Strength of Cement Mortar
    (جامعة سبها, 2022) علي, محمد
    Cement mortar is a heterogeneous material obtained by mixing cement paste (binder) with aggregates (filler), the later constituting more than 80% of the cement mortar. Cement mortar is a macro-material strongly influenced by addition other materials such as iron oxide. One of the most important properties of hardened cement mortar is its compressive strength, which can be quantitatively measured. In the present research the effect of iron oxide particle size on the compressive strength of cement mortar was studied. The particle size of iron oxide considered as (0.25 mm, 0.50 mm, 1.00 mm, 1.50 mm, and 4.00 mm). The compressive strength of hardened cement mortar samples were tested after 28 days of completion of curing. Results showed that the compressive strength of the cement mortar using a various iron oxide particle size increased with decreasing the particle size. Maximum increasing in compressive strength was about 20%, the addition of iron oxide to concrete with suitable fine iron oxide particle size will enhance the compressive strength of cement mortar due to the less formation of porosity
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    Investigation on The Effect of Zizyphus Spina-Christi on the corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution
    (جامعة سبها, 2022) أحمد, عبدالمجيد
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of an inhibitor, ziziphus spina-christi on the corrosion of low steel (mild steels) in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) acid solution by weight loss measurements and at the temperatures range 30 and 60 °C. The effect of hydrochloric acid addition on the corrosion and corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) at 30, 60°C in the absence and presence of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of zizyphus spina-christi (ZSC) plant have been investigated using chemical . The corrosion inhibition efficiency was determined using weight loss measurement method. The method of determining the weight loss of metal cylinders exposed to the corrosive environment using laboratory immersion corrosion testing method is the traditional and most widely used method for corrosion monitoring. The effects of inhibitor concentration on the corrosion rate of low steel have been found to increase with inhibitor concentration at both temperature 30 °C and 60 °C. The experimental data was used to determine the best models of isothermal equilibrium data sets for the used inhibitor. The results were fit to all used adsorption isotherms including; Langmuir isotherm and Temkin isotherm, while a slight improvements were observed when using an alcoholic extract inhibitor at temperature of 60 °C.
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    Simulation of a gas line to predict the formation of gas hydrates, using a Hysys software
    (جامعة سبها, 2021) حسن, خميس; عبدالحفيظ, عبدالصادق
    The formation of hydrates in production, processing facilities and pipelines has been a problem to the natural gas industry, that cost several millions of dollars.. There are a large number of investigations about this phenomenon. Some chemical methods and technologies have been used in order to inhibit the hydrate formation in pipelines or to predict it. The aim of research studied the problem of gas hydrate formation in natural gas transport pipelines, which leads to a blockage in the transmission line that results in stopping production.
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    Department of Chimical Engineering
    (جامعة سبها, 2022) محمد, حمزة; آمير, فاطمة; محمد, علي
    The use of organic or inorganic coatings for protecting metallic substrates is widely accepted in various structural engineering applications, such as aerospace, automobiles. In order to meet the industry requirements, the ability to achieve good corrosion resistance properties under a wide variety of conditions should be considered. The present work is based upon the use of Mg-Al sol-gel material to protect mild steel substrates against NaCl media. Filiform corrosion was employed in this experimental work to identify the possibility of corrosion on mild steel substrates compared with the commercial epoxy resin. Filiform corrosion is usually initiated by weak points or discontinuities in the film they never cross each other, and their growth is independent of light and of the metallurgical structure of the metal substrate and the driving force of this type of corrosion is controlled by the osmotic action (pressure) in the growing corrosion cell. The attack of this type of corrosion is usually affects steel. Visual examination of mild steel samples for both coated system showed the unstable adhesion property of epoxy resin on mild steel surface compared with that in the sample coated with sol-gel material. This can be attributed to chemical structure of Mg-Al sol-gel material play a key role in this behavior. IR spectra showed the two small bands at 3072 and 3049 cm-1 correspond to the C-H stretching vibrational bands. Additional a very strong bands between 1300 and 1200 cm-1 proves the presence of magnesium into the structure of the sol-gel materials. Also, the combination bands at 1711 and 1630 cm-1 are visible in these spectra and are related to the incorporation of aluminum and magnesium into the sol-gel structure. All these chemical bonds within the structure of sol-gel play a role in reducing the inter of water molecules within the Mg-Al\sol-gel and develop more adhesion bonding at the interface of sol-gel material and metal surface.